Graphene is a thin sheet of carbon atoms that bond to their neighbours to form a chicken-wire-type lattice precisely one atom thick. That doesn't sound too spectacular, but it has scientists in a tizzy.
It has been considered for everything from DNA sequencing, to water sterilisation systems, to electronics. Although each possible use requires more testing, the electronic applications give the material the most hurdles to jump before it can be declared practically useful. A little while ago, it sailed over one more bar. [io9]