How LED Streetlights Will Change Cinema (And Make Cities Look Awesome)

How LED Streetlights Will Change Cinema (And Make Cities Look Awesome)

The announcement last year that Los Angeles would be replacing its high-pressure sodium streetlights — known for their distinctive yellow hue — with new, blue-tinted LEDs might have a profound effect on at least one local industry. All of those LEDs, with their new urban colour scheme, will dramatically change how the city appears on camera, thus giving Los Angeles a brand new look in the age of digital filmmaking. As Dave Kendricken writes for No Film School, "Hollywood will never look the same."

How LED Streetlights Will Change Cinema (And Make Cities Look Awesome)

Kendricken specifically uses Michael Mann's 2004 film Collateral as his example of a movie that relied heavily on a depiction of Los Angeles at night. Mann deliberately set the film in L.A. — actually relocating it to L.A. from NYC, where it was originally going to be filmed — not only due to the narrative mechanics of the screenplay but because of the particular colour tones of the city's nocturnal streetscape and how they would appear when shot with digital cameras.

Mann's well-known urban aesthetic, and his propensity for shooting films digitally, thus came together in Los Angeles under the unlikely banner of the city's antiquated streetlight infrastructure.

How LED Streetlights Will Change Cinema (And Make Cities Look Awesome)

Surely, though, nothing is really being lost? Filmmakers and photographers can simply fake the old colour scheme in post-production — after all, that's what Photoshop is for. Not so fast, Kendricken warns.

As he points out, the effects of the LEDs are not, in fact, easy to mask. "The interesting thing about non-tungsten artificial light sources," he writes, "is that they often produce a non-continuous or incomplete spectral output. This can affect the appearance of certain colours under that output. More simply, you can't really put colours back in that weren't there to begin with, even by gelling such a light source or colour correcting in post."

How LED Streetlights Will Change Cinema (And Make Cities Look Awesome)

As such, he says, the switch to LED really is a historic change for the visual definition of Los Angeles — so much so (and this is my comment, not Kendricken's) that we might someday find ourselves seriously arguing over whether a city's artificial lights, due to their unique colour scheme, could be justifiably subject to historic preservation laws. After all, Kendricken adds, "In a sense, every night exterior L.A.-shot film previous to this change is rendered a sort of anthropological artifact, an historical document of obsolete urban infrastructure."

The implication is that every shot of Los Angeles prior to the LED turnover will soon be a valuable historic document, capturing the city in a light that will now be lost forever, its electrical signature seen in the colour schemes of every old film and photograph.

How LED Streetlights Will Change Cinema (And Make Cities Look Awesome)

Of course, this transition to LED streetlights is also happening in New York City, and other major cities around the world (where there are already intriguing mis-matches between urban lighting and personal photography equipment) will soon begin using LEDs for their environmental impact and cost.

In other words, the cinematic effects of LEDs will be seen elsewhere — meaning that, if we want to change the film industry, then ironically one of the fastest and most all-encompassing ways to do so is to change how our cities are lit.

Briefly, though, one more issue — something not raised by Kendricken but nonetheless interesting to mention — is the effect that various artificial lighting schemes and colours have on human neurology. Think of recent research, for example, into how blue-tinted light sources like computer screens and handheld devices can lead to insomnia and disrupt circadian rhythms; this is the premise of f.lux, for example, an app for automatically redshifting, so to speak, the hue of your computer monitor.

I mention this simply because the specter of an all-LED urban lighting screen raises the horror-movie-like possibility of a kind of city-wide neurological accident as the wrong colour choice is inadvertently installed across the city, leading to sleeplessness, shortness of attention span, and irritability, its citizens wandering around at night, sullen, introverted, and plagued with insomnia, being slowly driven insane by the street lights casting blue-tinted shadows all around them...

In any case, Kendricken has a more realistic take on what this means for filmmakers, and his write-up shouldn't be missed. [No Film School]

Lead image and all other comparative Los Angeles street shots courtesy of the Los Angeles Bureau of Street Lighting; film stills from Michael Mann's Collateral courtesy of Paramount Pictures.


    Reminded me of how much i loved Collateral. Great movie. Looked amazing.

    The other advantage of blue-tinted LEDs will be that the blue light will reduce melatonin production and help prevent drivers falling asleep. Personally, I never liked the nasty yellow /orange cast.

      The disadvantage of blue light is macular degeneration and generally blue ruins your night vision, without getting into too much detail.

        But for me the real the benefit of LED Streetlights is how freaking unbelievable bright they are. We just had them installed in our street in Sydney not long ago, and the change in light in the street was drastic!

        Small suburban street with only a few lights, so the difference was very noticeable.

        I'd like to hear some more detail on those claims..... Not doubting them at all just genuinely interested.

          Red and green are used by the army, navy and seafarers. None of them use blue or white light, just for that reason.

          Last edited 06/02/14 4:23 pm

    Great film. Collateral was shot by Australian DOP Dion Beebe. Australia has many talented directors of photography / cinematographers.

    For the filming- coloured filter over the lens? Crude, but they could tweek that in post. :)
    Or just work with the new, better colour scheme.

    i thought the reason for the yellow streetlights were that the color isn't as easily distorted/dispersed by fog and rain, so drivers can still see the road in heavy conditions.

    I think he's seriously underestimating how much you can add back in post.

    Also how much streetlights are actually used in filming as keys except in some really low budget effects.

    Or the fact if you were using them you'd probably balance your colours to them so they still looked neutral.

    Basically it's only those extreme wides and city shots, particularly where you can see a lot of mixed lighting where it's going to be a noticeable change and even then finding consistence in lighting even now is pretty much pure luck on any one street.

    Also all the "after shots" you posted look objectively better. Possibly due to actually using the white balance...

    the leds also dont seem to have the throw distance that the other lights do, which means more black spots and unlit areas, which could be potential danger for muggings etc etc.

    Suprising he does not talk about the frequency of these LEDs. Most LEDs are actually flashing on and off very quickly in order to maximise lifetime and minimise power usage. Too fast for the human eye but when recorded and played back and a slower frame rate you can often see it like you would when seeing an old computer screen refreshing when watching on TV. All new movies shot might end up looking like they were filmed under strobe lights!

    Last edited 05/02/14 7:05 pm

      So are HPS lights and any other arc lamp. They are flashing at the power line frequency, 50 or 60 Hz. While they do not go fully dark during their off period, they are still flashing and it's quite visible in high speed videos.
      Many LEDs for lighting are not pulse-width-modulated like you say. Unlike the arc lamps, they can in fact be run continuously. Using PWM introduces switching losses, so it's only used if the user wants to dim the light. For area lighting applications, the LEDs are sized according to requirements and run at 100% duty cycle. When they are PWM'd, its often at much higher frequency than mains frequency.

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