OS X Snow Leopard seems to do nothing really new. And yet, it could be their most important OS since 10.0.0. Updated the Bad Things section.
Snow Leopard, as a follow up to Leopard, is almost absurdly insubstantial at first glance. The new operating system takes the same old boring, every day tasks like opening files, for example, and makes them happen subtly faster. But that performance is not being utilised by any third-party programs right now. And there are practically no new first-party programs by Apple. Nope, mostly just rewritten old ones and dozens of little interface tweaks. Some fanboys will ask, incredulously, "This is a new operating system?!" Those people are missing the point.
On deeper inspection, Snow Leopard's inconspicuous aspects—performance squeezed from underused CPU multicores/GPUs and basic UI tweaks—are found to be the kind of refinement generally reserved for virtuosity. These speed optimisations are deep, reminding me of when a master martial artist puts the entirety of his weight behind a strike (while a neophyte would flails his limbs like a henchman in a Bruce Lee movie). The little UI tweaks are no different than when a great sculptor's chisel works to remove everything non-essential during the final steps on a statue. Challenging 30 years of ever more bloated software tradition, the changes here are about becoming a more effective middleware between the media and the hardware, reducing friction while becoming more useful by, well, being lighter, less visible.
And if you think that's bullshit, well, I can't say you're completely out of your mind, but there's always the consolation that this OS upgrade costs about the same as a used Xbox game.
After some benching on a first-generation MacBook Air, an older MacBook Pro 15 and a pair of current-gen 13-inch MacBook Pros, it's clear that Snow Leopard is faster—sometimes drastically—but almost never in third-party applications. Some people like charts. If you feel like skipping them, here's a summary:
Here's a video of those JPEGs cranking open in parallel, rather than serial, fashion:
Impressed yet?! You shouldn't be. Well, not by the act of opening images. But you definitely should once you realise what it really shows: Apple just pulled 2X performance out of my hardware, by software alone. Tada!
How is Snow Leopard Getting Faster?
There are three fundamental reasons for these performance increases: Better multicore processor support through what Apple calls GCD (Grand Central Dispatch); OpenCL APIs for utilising the processing power in any graphics cards above the GeForce 8600 Series for video acceleration and general purpose computing; and they've rewritten almost all the applications that ship with Snow Leopard to run in 64-bit mode while taking advantage of GCD and CoreCL. So it's making processing for today's chips more efficient and easier for developers, and giving programs a way to utilise the power of the video card when it's not playing games. It also allows programs to run in 64-bit mode, the main theoretical advantage of which is to allow these programs to access more than 4GB of RAM on systems that have it. (More on all that at the bottom of the page.*)
Snow Leopard is efficient in other ways too. Install size is down to 10GB from 16GB, most of that weight shed by losing printer drivers and the PowerPC part of universal binaries. (Snow Leopard runs only on Intel hardware and downloads printer drivers it needs from the net, as you need them.) Installation is also quicker by about 30% on any given piece of hardware (consistent with the smaller install footprint) and in a move that can only be categorised as showing off, Snow Leopard can finish its installation if you accidentally power it down midway through.
But I'm digressing. The bottom line on performance is that the programs included with this operating system will do just about everything faster on modern machines that support those technologies—that is, most of the multicore Macs or those running Nvidia 8600 series video cards or higher. And not just a bit faster, but faster on the scale of 25-50 per cent which means there's typically a good amount of latent processing juju in your video card and CPU. Great, but to be honest, it's a bit less impressive than it sounds in real life, today, because all the basic system tasks happen fast anyhow. (When was the last time you sat around while a JPEG opened up?) Again, no other apps that use GCD or OpenCL are available from software makers outside of Apple. But if the theoretical gains are here to be had via easier programming methods, I'd bet those apps will come soon.
There are 5 major changes in the UI:
Finder Icons now scale, courtesy of a little slider on the bottom right of the pane, up to 512 pixels wide. It sounds wasteful, except that video files can be played directly from the finder window. Honestly, I don't prefer it more than the QuickLook (hitting spacebar to popup a quick preview window) in Leopard and carried over in Snow Leopard. I don't mind the option, but I have no use for this feature.
Dock OS X's dock has been interactive for some time. You could drag a file to an icon there to somehow get the two to interact, but you could never use the dock to select which window instance of an app to use. Now clicking and holding (empty handed or with a file) triggers Expose, Apple's window management doohickey, for that particular application. Being able to quickly pop out an app's windows and then select the right one in a single step is terrific, but you still can't use Expose to quickly find the browser tab you want within a window. That's an increasingly big problem as the time spent in browsers goes up.
Expose Expose itself has been improved, too. When viewing all the windows for one application in Expose's zoomed-out view, the items are now arranged in a grid instead of a single, impossible to read line, and each window has a text label. (That's helpful when you're trying to recognise a particular window amongst lots of similar looking—and rendered tiny by Expose—text documents or emails.) Minimized windows are also now shown at the bottom of the screen under a faint line dividing it from other maximized windows from the same application.
Stacks When Stacks made its debut in Leopard, the dock mounted quick file viewer was too twitchy to use. You'd try to move a file and it would snap close, offended you'd try to do anything but open a file. And the space was always too limited in fan or grid mode to display more than a few icons. Stacks improves on this by allowing scrolling in the Grid view, but by also adding a smart list view capable of showing numerous files at once. It's an improvement.
QuickTime 10 Putting QuickTime in this list is questionable, but aside from its acceleration, there are some major changes here. That is, as you mouse away, the video screen loses all borders and buttons, appearing like the video equivalent of an infinity pool or one of those ultra thin LCDs. The program has a new capture system for encording video and audio clips and even voice annotated screen capture sessions. It also borrows the trimming thumbnail line from iMovie '09. I love it.
Let's face it, in the big picture, calling these changes "major" is generous. But there are literally dozens of even smaller examples, all welcome, all reducing friction points in the OS's usage, eliminating clicks needed and making the OS less obtuse. You can read about all of these additions in the gallery below, or here on one page, if you're curious to read about them all. If not, take my word for it: They all make things better.
Contacts app now syncs with Google and Yahoo!: No longer a service for the iPhone and Mobile Me, the Contacts application can now talk to your Yahoo and Google address books and pull your contact info.
Exchange Support: Snow Leopard now supports Microsoft Exchange throughout the platform, meaning mail, calendars and contacts can all be synced using the secure protocol. We haven't yet had a chance to put it through the ringer ourselves, but you suit-and-tie-loving mactards can at least be excited.
Date Appears In Menu Bar: If, like me, you're too lazy to click on the calendar, hit the widget key to see the calendar, or just make use of your memory, you can now have the full date on display from the Menu Bar.
Optimised Video Chats: Previously, to video chat in 640x480 resolution in iChat, you needed 900kbps of bandwidth. With the Snow Leopard version of iChat, you only need 300kbps. Plus iChat theatre also lets you carry out multiple chats in 640x480 resolution. It looks cleaner and runs smoother. We like it.
Quicktime X Youtube Upload: In addition, you can upload directly to Youtube from Quicktime X, making the video player more functional than ever.
Smart Text: Snow Leopard has a number of new text-based enhancement for apps like Text Edit, iChat and Mail including spelling auto-correct, and text substation, which lets you use shorter macros in place of longer words and phrases.
Password Login Delay: This is a legit and useful new feature of Snow Leopard—if you enabled a password protection when your computer goes to sleep, you can now choose how long your computer is idle before the password actually kicks in. Its great if you have your computer set to sleep after a few minutes of inactivity.
Google and Yahoo! Support in iCal: One nice thing about iCal is that it's now much easier to add calendars from Google and Yahoo!. No hacks or third party software necessary.
New Quicktime X UI: Snow Leopard comes complete with a new version of Quicktime that comes with a revamped UI, fullscreen mode, complete with a visual timeline and the ability to quickly edit videos, iMovie style (those last two were previously exclusive to the now defunct Quicktime Pro).
Split Terminal Consoles: Code monkeys will probably appreciate this because they can run different sessions and compare what goes on behind the scenes. For most of us, however, it matters little.
Native Gamma 2.2 Support: Snow Leopard supports Gamma 2.2 out of the box, which is preferred over Gamma 1.8 by design and graphics professionals because Adobe RGB also supports 2.2.
Better Drive Eject Protocol: If you use an external HDD with any regularity, you know ejecting the thing can be tricky—sometimes it will tell you an app is using the drive, but won't specify WHICH app is using it. Not only is ejecting more reliable, but if an app is actually using it, it will tell you which one it is.
Multitouch Gestures: Some of the pre-unibody design MacBook Pros that came along late in the game now have multitouch gestures supported—ALL of the gestures.
Trash Stashing: If you accidentally sent an item to the trash that you want to replace, it's now as easy as right clicking on the item in the garbage folder and clicking "Put Back." Problem solved.
Dock Expose: This is one of the slicker features to grace the Snow Leopard update—when you click and hold the icon of an open app on the dock all open windows associated with the app line up and arrange themselves like they would in Expose. But, you know, controlled from the Dock. Also nice is the revamped dock menu design, which looks very in tune with the iPhone's touch-friendly design.
Quicktime X video capture: With Quicktime X, you can also capture video direct from an iSight camera, firewire video camera or audio in. You can also record your screen with the push of a button.
Airport Signal Strength: Windows users have long been accustomed to this, but when you're looking for free wi-fi to steal and wanna get an idea of what's most reliable, you can now get an idea before you connect. It really took Apple this long to add this?
Improved PDF Handling In Preview: Preview improved the text selection algorithm for PDFs, so when you're trying to excerpt a pesky block of text from a dual column PDF, you can actually copy and paste it without getting a bunch of extra words.
There are four new fonts that come with Snow Leopard—Menlo, Chalkduster, Heiti and Hiragino Sans GB. But truth be told, they're no Helvetica.
Better Image Scaling: Preview now uses a process called Lanczos interpolation to resize and scale images. Judging from this image of a puking monkey that i resized from 450 to 800 wide, I'd say it works reasonably well.
Automatic Timezone Detection: If you're jetsetting around the country and/or world with regularity, Snow Leopard will detect your location using Wi-Fi hotspots and adjust the timezone accordingly.
Really Big Icons: When you're browsing in Finder's icon view, there's a slider that lets you scale your icons up to a massive 512x512 pixels. Why you'd want to do that, I don't know, but you can.
Thumbnail Preview: If you're viewing icons in Finder and come across a video file, a play button will appear over the thumbnail and you can preview the video without a pop-up window. You can also flip through PDFs and Office docs right from the thumbnail.
Six Extra Gigs of Space: Not like its a negative in any way (six gigs are six gigs), but if Snow Leopard freeing up six gigabytes of storage space feels necessary or exciting to you, you probably should just buy a new hard drive.
When browsing a stack in grid view and you have a bunch of crap in the folder, the window is now scrollable, simplifying the process, and basically making it look more and more like a Finder window with lipstick.
Annotate This!: Preview now has a bar at the bottom of the window full of various annotation tools, such as shapes, highlighter, memos, underline, strikeout and hyperlink. Useful for the bookworms out there who are deal with texts in digital formats.
Chinese Character Input: This isn't really a feature the majority of us will use, but rather a demo of what's possible with Apple input technology. You can use the trackpad to write Chinese characters and have them appear as computer text. Pretty neat idea.
Malware Scanning: Not so much an advertised feature of Snow Leopard, but it seems the new Apple OS has the ability to do a light scan for malware when you attempt to open a file. Interesting.
64-Bit Computing: Snow Leopard has been designed from the start to support 64-bit computing, and if you have a Core 2 Duo (or better) processor, Apple says your computer will run faster and more secure. But the noticeable advantage of 64-bit computing is that it can support more than 32-gigabytes of RAM (16 billion-gigabytes MAX) down the road.
Grand Central Dispatch: Apple's new Grand Central Dispatch technology claims to take advantage of multi-core processors by routing processes more efficiently to prevent lag and freezing. If one core gets tied up by a resource-heavy app, the other is still free for general use across the rest of the computer.
GPU-based h.264 Acceleration and Open CL Compliance: Quicktime X uses newer GPUs to accelerate h.264 videos which allows for faster, smoother playback that uses less memory and computing power. Snow Leopard is also designed to work with the Open CL standard which basically means that any developer can code OS X apps to access the discrete NVIDIA GPUs found in newer Apple Products for more than just graphics.
Rosetta Isn't Gone: Just because Snow Leopard doesn't run on PowerPC machines doesn't mean it's dropped support for legacy apps altogether. If you attempt to install a PPC-based app, Snow Leopard will prompt you to install Rosetta.
Faster Time Machine Backups: Apple says that the initial Time Machine backup in Snow Leopard is 80 per cent faster than before, which will save you A LOT of time if you have huge chunks of data to push through.
What kind of sick fanboy would I be if I didn't mention the imperfections?
And Safari 4's ability to segment unstable browser plugins made itself useful when many more flash powered pages crashed in Snow Leopard than Leopard.
Other reviewers have discovered that Snow Leopard has disabled or quirk-ified some of their apps.
I've also noticed that Expose doesn't work as smoothly with spaces now. You sometimes select a window on another virtual spaces desktop and it won't bring the window up top.
If you've got some third part mission critical app that you need to run every day, you should double check its compatibility and wait for a new version before upgrading your OS. Look before you leap here. The OS isn't so radically new that you have to have it right this moment.
The changes here are modest, and the performance gains look promising but beyond the built in apps, just a promise. If you're looking for more bells and whistles, you can hold off on this upgrade for at least awhile. But my thought is that Snow Leopard's biggest feature is that it doesn't have any new features, but that what is already there has been refined, one step closer to perfection. They just better roll out some new features next time, because the invisible refinement upgrade only works once every few decades.
Uses latent multicore and GPU power to speed up the apps it comes with by relatively huge amounts
Costs AU$39 to upgrade
Still haven't seen any third party apps rewritten to take advantage of Snow Leopard's speed yet
No major new functionality might turn off some
*Performance Background: You May Skip This Section. Today's chips have hovered in the 2-3.6GHz range for some time, with gains in theoretical processing power made by increasing the number of CPU cores on one chip and optimising the silicon in those cores. Think about it as roof shingles: It's easier to protect your roof with lots of little shingles than one huge one. Unfortunately, the power afforded by the additional CPU cores has largely gone to waste, because it's difficult to write code that takes full advantage of multiple cores. The programmer has to write the application in a way that breaks down large problems into multiple smaller problems (called threads), each of which runs on a single CPU core. The application then becomes a traffic cop keeping threads in sync. If any part gets out of sync, the app crashes or hangs.
This problem is made more complex because many apps are written with a maximum number of threads in mind. While some workloads, such as video encoding or photo processing can take advantage of many cores innately, most need to have some work done to add support for more threads, so future-proofing has been difficult. I don't know if programming GCD is easier than straight-up multiple-core programming, but the key here is that Apple's created a middleware that developers can write for, which automatically scales up to work with the number of CPU cores or other hardware in your system. The developer writes for GCD, while the system handles the gruntwork. Apple hopes more people will use this easier, more future-proofed way to tap into multiple-core power. Of course, no one has so far, except Apple programmers themselves. This explains why Finder, Preview and basically everything else that ships with Snow Leopard run faster. But in my tests, Photoshop, still a 32-bit program on the Mac and written without any support of GCD or OpenCL, showed less than 1 per cent variation from Leopard to Snow Leopard. Still, as we can see from the system apps, there's potential here. And let's face it, the majority of us are not rendering Photoshop files all day, so this is performance you can put in your pocket today.
There's a story of efficiency here, too, however. Because GCD is better at managing resources, a program like, Mail, for example, shows less system impact (thread usage, CPU usage) while sitting idle in Snow Leopard, than on Leopard. When testing OpenCL's hardware acceleration, something Windows machines have had for awhile, by playing a 1080p trailer of James Cameron's awesome new Avatar movie, CPU usage dropped drastically when machines were using the 64-bit CoreCL and GCD supported version of QuickTime. Any modern machine can play 1080p video well, but here, we were talking about Snow Leopard causing the strain on the system to take total CPU usage from 30% to 16% on the 13-inch MacBook Pros. Other apps will eventually be able to use these GPU superpowers, but what Apple claims is the real potential for GPU processing is that OpenCL will let computers use video cards for not only 3D acceleration, video encoding, and heavy math, but more general computing tasks, too, because its written in a non-specific (C-based) programming language.
Furthermore, there have been a number of good articles questioning the speed benefits of 64-bit computing. Apple only goes so far to claim that math-based tasks benefit from the larger bus, but generally the only concrete advantage of 64-bit computing is the ability apps gain to manipulate over 4GB of RAM, a 32-bit limitation. Apple's dev docs go on to say that some apps will incur a penalty if going 64-bit. So, rewriting apps in 64-bit versions is not a surefire recipe for speed improvement.
In many cases, with many of the built-in apps, Apple attributes the performance improvements to all three core technologies above. That stuff that means not so much today, but might mean a lot tomorrow as GPUs get faster and CPUs gain more cores and there's already an infrastructure in place to take advantage of all that.